23 May 2017
The inquiry, launched over 2 years ago, and part of the wider Commission Digital Single Market Strategy (see our earlier comment here) has gathered evidence from nearly 1,900 companies connected with the online sale of consumer goods and digital content.
The Report’s main findings
- Price transparency has increased through online trade, allowing consumers instantaneously to compare product and price information and switch from online to offline. The Commission acknowledges that this has created a significant ‘free riding’ issue, with consumers using the pre-sales services of ‘brick and mortar’ shops before purchasing products online.
- Increased price transparency has also resulted in greater price competition both online and offline. It has allowed companies to monitor prices more easily, and the use of price-tracking software may facilitate resale price maintenance and strengthen collusion between retailers.
- Manufacturers have reacted to these developments by seeking to increase their control of distribution networks though their own online retail channels, an increased use of ‘selective distribution’ arrangements (where manufacturers set the criteria that retailers must meet to become part of the distribution system) and the introduction of contractual restrictions to control online distribution.
How about changes to competition policy?
The Report does not advocate any significant changes to European competition policy, but rather confirms the status quo. The key point of interest are as follows:
- Selective distribution – whilst the Commission has not recommended any review of the Vertical Block Exemption Regulation (‘VBER’) ahead of its scheduled expiry in 2022, the Commission notes that the use of selective systems aimed at excluding pure online retailers, for example by requiring retailers to operate at least one ‘brick and mortar’ shop, is only permissible where justified (for example in respect of complex or quality goods or to protect suitable brand image).
- Pricing restrictions – dual pricing (i.e. differential pricing depending on whether sales are made online or through a bricks and mortar outlet) will generally be considered a ‘hardcore’ (or object) restriction of competition when applied to one and the same retailer, although it is capable of individual exemption under Article 101(3) TFEU, for example if the obligation is indispensable to address free-riding by offline stores.
- Restrictions on the use of marketplaces – the Report finds that an absolute ban on the use of an online marketplace should not be considered a hardcore restriction, although the Commission notes that a reference for a preliminary ruling is pending before the CJEU (C-230/16 - Coty Germany v Parfümerie Akzente).
- Geo-blocking – a re-emphasis of the existing position on territorial and customer restrictions – active sales restrictions are allowed, whereas passive sales restrictions are generally unlawful. Within a selective distribution system, neither active nor passive sales to end users may be restricted. The Commission also make clear that companies are free to make their own unilateral decisions on where they choose to trade.
- Content licensing – the significance of copyright licensing in digital content markets is noted, as is the potential concern that licensing terms may suppress innovative business practices.
- Big Data – possible competition concerns are identified relating to data collection and usage. In particular, the exchange of competitively sensitive data (e.g. in relation to prices and sales) may lead to competition problems where the same players are in direct competition, for example between online marketplaces and manufacturers with their own shop.
What happens next?
The Commission has identified the need for more competition enforcement investigations, particularly in relation to restrictions of cross-border trade. It is expected that more investigations will be opened in addition to those already in play in respect of holiday bookings, consumer electronics and online video games. In a more novel approach, the Commission’s press release also name-checks a number of retailers (in particular in fashion) who have already reformed their business practices “on their own initiative”.
The Commission also highlights the need for a consistent application of the EU competition rules across national competition authorities. It remains to be seen whether the Commission will seek to use its enforcement investigations to address inconsistencies such as those evident in the more interventionist stance of some national authorities (e.g. the Bundeskartellamt) in respect of issues such as pricing restrictions.
23 May 2017
An announcement by the European Commission last week resolves an open question about its view on the recent spate of pharma sector excessive pricing cases that have been seen in Italy and the UK. The Commission has now confirmed that, following dawn raids across four member states in February, it has opened an investigation into Aspen Pharma for suspected breach of Article 102. The concern is that Aspen’s pricing practices in relation to off patent drugs containing five ingredients used for treating cancer has led to unjustified price increases. This overlaps with the Italian Market Competition Authority’s decision in October 2016 to fine Aspen €5.2 million for unfair price increases, which covered four of the five ingredients now under investigation (see here for our report). This is the Commission’s first excessive pricing case in the pharma sector, following a trend set by the national competition authorities (including in the UK and US – although given that US antitrust does not apply to pure pricing issues, the US cases have tended to focus on another form of abuse (e.g. here) which led to the excessive prices). The EU NCAs have been well placed to deal with such conduct, as pharma markets are national in scope, and subject to significant regional differences resulting from the different formation of public health services. However, setting the benchmark price is a difficult – and controversial – aspect in any investigation (see here for our thoughts on the CMA’s recent approach) and it will be of interest to see how the Commission tackles the issue, as its approach may well be followed by other NCAs.
Bearing these points in mind, we will be particularly keen to see how the Commission deals with the following two points:
- The definition of the relevant market and whether a company is dominant – before assessing whether its prices are excessive, a pharma company must first know whether it is dominant. With diverging approaches on product market definition (definitions have been drawn from therapeutic / molecular / dosage level and from regulatory guidance), it can be difficult to make an assessment of dominance. In Aspen’s case, it has found itself one of few companies willing to manufacture low volume generic drugs, and despite low barriers to entry, no other companies have entered the market to exert a form of price control on Aspen. It has perhaps therefore become dominant as a result of market failures.
- How the Commission determines an acceptable level of profit (i.e., what is the meaning of ‘excessive’?). While under patent protection, pharmaceutical product prices are generally constrained in some way (e.g. through profit caps under the UK PPRS), but in theory, profits could be competed upwards following patent expiry, even if overall prices decline (this is a key part of the argument raised by Pfizer and Flynn in their appeals of the CMA infringement decision). The recent opinion of AG Wahl considering unfair prices (albeit in a copyright licence context) concluded that there is no single method of determining the benchmark, and acknowledges that there is a high risk of error, but a price should only be excessive if it is significantly and persistently above whatever benchmark is determined. Whilst AG Wahl was unable to point to any guaranteed failsafe methods of analysis, he stated that an authority should only intervene when there is no doubt that an abuse has been committed.
The investigation does signal that the Commission is keen to address the fairness of pricing in the pharmaceutical industry, but as with all such investigations, its approach should not be one of a price regulator. Indeed, the Commission is at pains to point out that it is looking at a case where the price increases were extremely significant (100s of percent uplift). It may reveal that a case-by-case approach is not appropriate, and the real issue is regulatory failure that will need to be corrected by legislation (such as that currently before the UK Parliament).